Tips on Future-Proofing Your GIS Career

Illustration of a group of red and white circles containing location arrows; Credit: Al Amin Shamim, Unsplash
Credit: Al Amin Shamim, Unsplash

By Rosemary Boone, Esri Young Professionals Network (YPN)

As GIS evolves toward web-based applications, the skills required for a successful GIS career are also changing. This article provides advice on how to future-proof your GIS career by continuing your skill development and through community engagement, mentoring, networking, and attendance at conferences. You’ll receive crucial resources you can leverage to become more connected to various GIS community groups and build your own online presence and reputation.

What does it mean to be a GIS professional of the future? This is a valid question, as the world of GIS is constantly evolving. As GIS moves more toward being web-based, the skills needed to be a marketable GIS professional are changing too.

As a Senior Industry Marketing Manager at Esri, and an Advisory Board member for the Esri Young Professionals Network (YPN), I was recently inspired by an Esri YPN webinar, titled Future-Proofing Your GIS Career: Essential Skills and Training for Success, to compile five important tips for future-proofing your GIS career.

1) Stay Connected after You’ve Graduated

Preparing for your future takes a variety of forms and formats. You can build skills with online courses, apply for a certificate in a specialized area, or present at a conference. An important part of your professional development is connecting with, learning from, and sharing with your peers and community groups

Here are ways to include connections and networking in your career development:

Get Involved in GIS Communities

Connect with community groups or networks such as Esri YPN, Women+ in Geospatial, local user groups, associations like URISAAAGWomen in GIS, and USGIF.

LinkedIn is an excellent platform to stay engaged. You can follow industry experts and learn from the content they create. Start with joining the Esri YPN LinkedIn Group.

If you are a GIS user, Esri Community is one of the largest online GIS communities and is a place to read blogs, ask technical questions, connect with users of GIS technology, submit ideas, and set up RSS feeds. Many Esri products, services, and groups have their own Esri Community space and blog.

Become a Mentor

The best way to grow is to teach someone else. Mentoring, whether formally through a program or informally as a colleague, can help not only the people you mentor to learn, but you as well. Find out if you are eligible to mentor in your department, or get connected with an organization with mentoring programs, such as The URISA Mentor Network, which takes applications throughout the year for both mentors and mentees.

Ethnically Diverse Geospatial Engagement (EDGE) came out with a Beginners Guide to Mentorship with EDGE. Women+ in Geospatial has a  mentor program that also reaches an international group. AAG members also can get access to a list of mentors that you can get connected with. (Email Mark Revell to learn more).

You can also browse through the YPN Mentorship space to read up on material and resources around the overall topic of mentorship.

Attend Conferences

Conference-going is a big way to grow your skills and network through attending presentations and workshops to learn about the latest technology trends. Many times, you will be introduced to a new concept or idea while at a conference to take back to your organization that could potentially result in a successful campaign or initiative. The contacts you make at conferences can be leveraged as a resource for future collaborations, troubleshooting, mentors, and potential colleagues.

Some conferences that may interest you include AAG’s Annual Meeting and check out Esri conferences.

2) Equip Yourself to Overcome Challenges

There will be a time where you lack confidence about learning something new when you begin your career. It happens to all and the best of us! Here are ways to approach that challenge when learning something new.

First, remind yourself, “everyone has been new at something once.”

Next, ask questions. It’s best to ask questions at the beginning to show you’re engaged and you’re thinking about the problem. If you feel nervous or confused about something that you might not have the skills to accomplish, know that asking questions is not considered a weakness.

Remember, it’s okay to say, “I don’t know”. Have the mindset to say, “I don’t know but I will figure it out” because chances are the resources are out there for you. When asking quality questions, you demonstrate a sincere thoughtfulness and a willingness to go deeper.

Last, don’t underestimate the knowledge that you do have. It’s important to sometimes take a step back to acknowledge how far you have come in GIS and learning ArcGIS. Imposter Syndrome is a real thing and can be easy to get caught up in.

3) Leverage Resources to Grow Your GIS Skills

There are many resources, both formal and informal, to help keep your GIS skills sharp:

4) Validate or Demonstrate Your GIS Skills

Showcase and validate your skills through programs such as the Esri Technical Certification Program and GIS Certification Institute. Achieving a certificate in GIS can elevate your professional standing and open doors to various career opportunities.

There are costs associated with each program. Esri Technical Certifications charges a fee for the exam, which is proctored online, allowing you to take it at home or in your office. GISCI charges for the exam and a portfolio submission, as well as small annual fees and recertification every three years.

Esri also offers free Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) on various topics such as Spatial Data Science, Cartography, Imagery, Climate, and more. Each MOOC is six-weeks long and offers a certificate upon completion.

5) Build Your Presence and Reputation in the GIS Community

Sometimes, you just have to put yourself out there. There’s just no way around it no matter how uncomfortable it feels. This takes time, intention, motivation, and tenacity. (As I sit here and write this article, I too am putting myself out there!)

Here are some ways you can begin to build a presence and reputation of your own in the GIS community.

Become a YPN Ambassador

If you are just starting out as a GIS professional, the YPN Ambassador program could be a fit for you. YPN is designed to prompt you to network online and in person, developing professional communication skills and becoming an active participant in the GIS community. Complete the steps in becoming one of three ambassador types and earn your badge and certificate.

Participate in Mapping Challenges and Competitions

Virtual challenges, hackathons, and similar events are a fun way to attract attention and demonstrate your skills in geospatial technology. Some recommendations are:

Leverage Social Media to Boost Your GIS Career

Social media is a powerful tool for building an identity that aligns with your goals and values, enabling you to communicate and connect with the outside world, learn from others, cultivate creativity, and promote your work. By leveraging social media effectively, you can boost your reputation and visibility in the GIS community and establish yourself as an active participant.

Download this ebook, published in collaboration with the URISA Vanguard Cabinet and the Esri Young Professionals Network, to discover how to use social media to supercharge your career, leading to growth opportunities, meaningful connections, and collaboration prospects.

Join a Local YPN Chapter

Esri YPN has established seven chapters across the United States, each hosting two in-person meetups a year. Meetups revolve around networking, meeting industry experts, and learning the latest trends in GIS. Some meetups take place at an Esri regional office and vary in format such as geography trivia, demos, networking activities, and more. Join a chapter near you.

Find Guest Speaking Opportunities

Consider submitting a paper session or abstract to present at a conference. I took that advice and submitted a proposal for a lightening talk at the upcoming GIS-Pro conference.  To my amazement, I later received an acceptance email and will be traveling to present! Is this nerve-wracking and a bit uncomfortable for me? Yes! But I know that I will grow professionally as a result and meet people that will make me a stronger and more well-rounded professional.

Rosemary Boone is a Senior Industry Marketing Manager for Esri, concentrating on executing marketing strategies for K-12 schools and higher education institutions. She holds a master’s degree in education technology with an emphasis on multimedia. Prior to her career in marketing, she taught elementary school and taught overseas. In her free time, she likes to listen to music, exercise, and spend time with her two Dachshunds.

Featured Articles is a special section of the AAG Newsletter where AAG sponsors highlight recent programs and activities of significance to geographers and members of the AAG. To sponsor the AAG and submit an article, please contact Oscar Larson olarson [at] aag [dot] org.


Council Meeting – June 2024


Statement of Professional Ethics

Endorsed by the Council of the American Association of Geographers: October 18, 1998; updated April 5, 2005; revised November 1, 2009; revised March 15, 2021; and revised June 12, 2024.

I. Preamble

Geography is a field of study that examines the relations among people, places, and the more-than-human world. Geographical scholarship spans the natural and social sciences as well as the humanities and arts and is undertaken in many different social and environmental contexts. Thus, in our research, teaching, and professional life, geographers are confronted with a wide variety of ethical considerations, each requiring careful reflection and thoughtful action.

Our discipline of geography is stronger when we uphold equity, human rights, and educational freedom across the breadth of geographic inquiry. We appreciate the diversity of our members’ experiences and backgrounds, as well as the broad variety of ideas and approaches to geographic knowledge production.

This Statement on Professional Ethics outlines core principles to inform the ethical conduct of members of the American Association of Geographers (AAG) and the geographical community more broadly. These principles provide general guidelines applicable to geographers working in diverse professional settings. AAG members, in particular, are urged to familiarize themselves with, reflect on, and act in accordance with these principles when working in a professional capacity. Members of the AAG are required to abide by AAG’s Professional Conduct Policy and Procedures, and many geographers must also conform to ethical requirements related to research with human subjects as interpreted and enforced by institutions and funders. Geographers also belong to multiple professional communities, each with its own ethical standards. This Statement should therefore be viewed in conjunction with these other codes, statements, and standards.

This Statement is written with the intent to encourage active, thoughtful engagement with ethical issues in relation to the various circumstances that geographers encounter in their professional lives. These principles address general circumstances, priorities, and relationships, and should therefore be seen as starting points for consideration of the ethical issues attendant to our activities as professional geographers. Each of us must be ready and willing to make, and be equipped to defend, ethical choices that also go beyond the principles laid out here.

II. Do Good: Respect People, Places, and the More-Than-Human World

Geographers should respect people, places, and the more-than-human world in all aspects of our work as professional geographers. Respect for well-being underlies the principle of doing no harm, actively affirming the responsibility of geographers to use our work to enhance the well-being of others, especially for those who are most vulnerable to harm. The principle of respect acknowledges that all geographical knowledge is situated and should depend on building relationships informed by an ethics of care for the well-being of both human and non-human lives as well as the places and environments they call home. Geographers should therefore make reasonable efforts to treat those with whom we interact with dignity and respect, conducting ourselves with honesty and integrity when engaging in academic and professional activities.

  1. Honor Refusal and Data Sovereignty: It is crucial to honor individuals’ and communities’ right to refuse to participate in research, to allow access to their lands for the collection of biophysical data, or to agree to publication of knowledge researchers gain from them or their land.
  2. Respect Research Participants: An important sign of respect and care in geographical scholarship involving human subjects is conducting research with, rather than on, participants and avoiding exploitative or extractive research. Geographers must be accountable not only to our own professional communities but to all of the relations involved in the production and dissemination of geographical knowledge. Geographers should act with particular care in Global North — Global South relationships which historically have been affected by an unequal plain of knowledge construction. Geographers should also carefully reflect upon how we represent ourselves, research participants, and places in our research, teaching, and professional life. Respectful geographical scholarship is based upon an appreciation for reciprocity with research participants in the co-production of geographical knowledge. Reciprocal relationships are built through active listening and an obligation to share the benefits of geographical research with those it directly affects. Acknowledgement of power differentials and privileges is part of creating more reciprocal relationships in research and geographical knowledge construction praxis.
  3. Non-Human World: The principle of respect also extends to the treatment of non-human entities individuals, groups, species, and ecosystems affected by geographical research. Geographers have an ethical obligation to develop geographical knowledge that aims to alleviate the harms caused by anthropogenic environmental change. Geographers should seek to enhance the well-being of more-than-human lives and the environmental conditions conducive to their survival and capacity to thrive. In circumstances where the well-being of one living entity negatively impacts the well-being of another, geographical researchers should carefully consider how our own interventions may affect the well-being and survival of all parties before deciding whether or how to intervene.

Consideration and respect for the non-human world include the following:

  • A commitment for individuals to reduce their GHG emissions in relation to conference participation, etc.
  • Weighing the necessity of travel with regard to how many professional meetings one attends, how far one travels, or if one attends virtually.
  • Using less GHG intensive means travel (train/carpool) where practical and possible.

III. Do No Harm

An overarching ethical principle, serving as the basis for all academic and professional activities of geographers, is that we should do no harm. Our activities inevitably affect the people and places we study, societies, ecosystems, biodiversity, climate and landforms, our students, and those who help make our work possible. It is imperative that both prior to and during the performance of our professional work — ranging across human geography, physical geography, nature-society geography, and GIScience — each geographer should think through the possible ways that our activities might cause harm. Harms include those affecting the dignity, livelihood, and well-being of human and non-human lives as well as the resilience and sustainability of ecosystems and environments. Beyond direct harm, we should also consider long-term and indirect implications, and possible unintended consequences, being willing to step back from or terminate those activities when harm feels unavoidable. The obligation to do no harm should supersede other goals of seeking or communicating new knowledge.

  1. Recognize Power Hierarchies: In making assessments of potential harm, geographers must be sensitive to the unequal power relationships surrounding our activities. We frequently occupy powerful positions relative to our research participants, and it is all too easy for us to be unaware of, or to forget, the impact that these power imbalances can have on those affected by geographical research. Our activities and reflections require special care when the subject matter involves Indigenous peoples, racialized or ethnic minorities, Global South based populations and other vulnerable groups, including when research is conducted with and by members of those groups.
  2. Care for Others: Caring also means that geographers, when possible, engage in reciprocal scholarship and research activities that promote horizontal relationships. Potential issues include physical and social threat and danger to participants both from outside and within such communities, violation of their intellectual property, and threats to the viability of a group and its territory. These can stem not only from published data, but also from the data collection process itself. Information thus should not be extracted from such communities without their consent. Benefits to the community must be recognized as such by the community, and it is particularly important for researchers to consider whether they are accepting funds from sources whose agendas are seen as hostile to such communities. All AAG journals, publications, and presentations at national and regional division meetings of the AAG require an acknowledgement of funding sources.
  3. Be Conscientious: Geographers must exercise the utmost caution and conscientious consideration when interacting with non-human entities, individuals, groups, species, and ecosystems, acknowledging and reflecting upon the potential harm that may arise from their activities. Where methods and activities may be invasive or potentially cause long-term alterations to environments, strong justification and appropriate safeguards are reasonable obligations. In such situations, the costs and benefits of the research and professional activities should be weighed carefully in advance, not just once the work is underway, and be continually reassessed throughout the research process.
  4. Abstain From Actions That Pose Serious Risk: Actions that pose serious risks to the dignity and well-being of participants or other affected parties fall outside the boundaries of accepted geographical scholarship and have no place within the academic study and professional practice of geography. Geographical scholarship depends upon the right to academic freedom, but academic freedom cannot justify violating the well-being of human and non-human lives. It thus follows that geographers should eschew collaborating with or seeking funding from public or private organizations known to participate in warfare or similar acts of violence – such as those associated with the military, intelligence, security, or police – without adequate ethical safeguards, since such participation can create risks for both researchers and the researched. When such collaboration is deemed ethical, geographers are responsible for prominently and publicly reporting such relationships.

IV. Maintain Ethical Professional Relationships

Respect the Rights of Others: Geographers must engage with colleagues, research associates, students, and staff in a respectful manner. This includes respect for the rights of others, a refusal to spread gossip, a commitment to discussing differences openly and honestly, and attention to the power asymmetries in which we are all embedded. Geographers must not plagiarize, fabricate or falsify evidence, or knowingly misrepresent information. Representations of others’ work should be devoid of prejudice or malice, notwithstanding differences of interpretation, translation, personality, ideology, theory, or methodology. We should take time to reflect before posting online, avoiding cyberbullying and abusive language. However, raising ethical concerns about the conduct of others does not, in itself, constitute cyberbullying if there are reasonable grounds for such concerns and they are presented in a professional manner.

  1. Collaborate with Care: The scope of collaboration, rights, and responsibilities of those participating, co-authorship, credit, and acknowledgment should be openly and fairly established at the outset. We must be particularly attentive to actual or perceived conflicts of interest, exercising care to protect the interests and well-being of the less powerful.
  2. Foster Diverse Professional Communities: Geographers should strive to create and maintain a diverse, pluralistic, and inclusive professional community. It is our moral responsibility to respect the dignity of all, valuing a diversity of intellectual commitments and respecting individual differences. In particular, we should continually work to empower the voices and views of underrepresented communities.
  3. Be aware of unconscious bias: Unconscious biases are involuntary associations that are learned through socialization and activated unconsciously. Unconscious biases (also known as implicit biases) are deeply ingrained and pervasive and every individual regardless of their age, gender, ability, race, ethnicity, etc will automatically display them.  These biases may skew towards either a positive or negative outcome.  Unconscious biases influence decision making and can lead to discriminatory practices in hiring, promotion and tenure, grading, and assessment, etc.  Geographers should strive to minimize these biases by increasing their awareness and working towards understanding their own individual biases (e.g. through training) and putting in place effective mitigation strategies.
  4. Engage in Inclusive Teaching: Diversity should also be central to teaching and advising. Instructors should strive to create a classroom environment that fosters respect for and engagement across different learning styles, interpretations, and theoretically informed perspectives, in ways that empower underrepresented positionalities and identities and create safe learning spaces. Instructors should take student perspectives that differ from or critique their own views as seriously as they are presented, modeling for others the value of respectful disagreement and debate.
  5. Respect and Mentor Teaching Assistants: Teaching assistants should be treated with respect, as full partners in delivering a course: departments and instructors should actively foster the pedagogical development of teaching assistants, provide clear instructions about expectations and timely feedback on their performance. Departments and instructors should ensure that teaching assistants’ overall workload does not exceed their contractual obligations and provide mentoring and pedagogical training. Teaching assistants should be encouraged to keep track of their workload and time, and departments should provide clear mechanisms for raising workload concerns with their department chair, TA coordinator, and/or Director of Graduate Studies.
  6. Engage in Holistic Graduate Advising: Advisors should be attentive to students’ overall well-being, including mental health and work/life balance, standing ready to provide personal support and facilitate access to professional counseling when appropriate. Graduate advising includes a commitment to training and respecting students as future colleagues in the profession, discussing students’ career goals with them, providing advice on coursework and research projects, and having regular check-ins on progress toward these goals. To this end, advisors and advisees may want to enter into mutually agreed upon advising contracts that clarify faculty and graduate student commitments. Graduate advising further includes giving timely feedback on work in progress (such as theses, funding applications, and manuscript drafts for publications) and helping prepare students for the academic and non-academic job markets, in part by giving feedback on application materials. For a helpful guide see The University of Michigan’s How to Mentor Graduate Students.
  7. Commit to Inclusive Hiring Practices: Treat job applicants and referees with respect by
    • Making sure to only ask letters from narrower list of candidates rather than at the initial submission date.
    • Being conscious of the fact that job search processes are stressful for applicants and, where possible, keep applicants informed about the progress of the search (letting them know if they are no longer in the running as soon as that’s practical instead of not communicating or only sending a form letter after a year.)
    • Protecting and respecting the privacy and confidentiality of applicants and of the search process.
    • Treating everyone humanely. Geographers should be considerate of the stresses and find ways to support applicants, including those who do not get hired.

V. Do Not Discriminate and Harass

Geographers must not discriminate, harass, bully, or engage in other forms of professional misconduct as defined by the AAG Professional Conduct Policy and Procedures. AAG members should familiarize themselves with their obligations as set out in this document, including procedures for acting on and reporting harassment.

  1. Ensure Fair Evaluations: In evaluating the professional performance of peers and other employees, geographers should not discriminate against individuals or groups using criteria irrelevant to professional performance. Such irrelevant criteria generally include (but are not limited to) age, class, ethnicity, gender, marital status, nationality, politics, physical disability, race, religion, and/or sexual orientation.
  2. Adhere to Fair Employment Practices: In addition, geographers should adhere to fair employment practices. They should not discriminate against individuals or groups using criteria irrelevant to the positions for which they are hiring. Geographers are encouraged to strive for inclusivity, justice, and equity in all employment practices.

VI. Obtain Informed Consent for Research, Manage Data Responsibly, and Make Results Accessible

Geographers working with human communities must obtain free, prior, and informed consent of research participants. The consent process should be a part of project design and continue through implementation as an ongoing dialogue and negotiation with research participants. Minimally, informed consent includes sharing with potential participants the research goals, methods, direct and indirect funding sources or sponsors, expected outcomes, anticipated impacts of the research, and the rights and responsibilities of research participants. It must also establish expectations regarding anonymity and credit. Researchers must present to research participants the possible impacts of participation, and make clear that despite their best efforts, confidentiality may be compromised or outcomes may differ from those anticipated.

  1. Obtain Institutional Approval: Geographers whose research involves humans, based in countries where there is an Institutional Review Board (IRB) or similar process, must obtain institutional approval and follow its stipulations about informed consent, modification of research practices, reporting of adverse events, etc. In countries where there are no IRB processes, geographers, should obtain permission from the communities they will contribute to. Geographers should also familiarize themselves with relevant documents on which such consent is based; in the US, this is particularly informed by the Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. At the same time, geographers should be aware that considerations of ethics go beyond and may in some circumstances differ from such rules.
  2. Take Informed Consent Seriously: The informed consent process is necessarily dynamic, continuous, and reflexive. When research changes in ways that may directly affect participants, geographers must revisit and renegotiate consent. The principle of doing no harm means that the right to refuse research goes beyond specific individuals approached through the IRB process, and also includes the right of communities to refuse participation. Informed consent does not necessarily imply or require a particular written or signed form. It is the quality of the consent, not its format, which is relevant.
  3. Share Findings: Whenever appropriate, results of research should be shared with research participants, local colleagues, host agencies, and affected persons and communities in a format that is accessible to them. Whenever possible, acknowledgement, including authorship, should be determined in a fair and transparent manner.
  4. Make Data Available: In general, geographers should make data and findings publicly available to the greatest extent allowable by funding agencies, IRB protocols, and by our ethical principles, and in a fashion that is consistent with the goal of doing no harm to the people, places, and environments we study. Thus, in some situations, generalization or other measures such as the use of pseudonyms will be necessary to protect privacy, confidentiality, and limit exposure to risks. Most funding agencies have guidelines for the use and distribution of data and research findings, and may require a data use agreement as a condition for grant or contract awards. Such an agreement may include provisions designed to protect de-identified data from re-identification, and conditions relating to data storage, protection, publication, and transmission. Geographers should carefully document how datasets are collected, constructed, and managed, and carefully guard against any data breaches, while promptly notifying affected individuals or communities if a breach does occur. Geographers should reflect carefully on the potential problems that so-called “big data” pose with respect to data management, de- and re-identification, and privacy.
  5. Protect Privacy and Confidentiality: Geospatial technologies introduce further challenges with respect to potential violations of privacy and confidentiality of individuals and groups. In using these technologies, researchers should make reasonable efforts to protect the health, well-being, and privacy of research participants. Understandings, expectations, and preferences regarding privacy differ across and within societies. Further, privacy depends on the nature of the data, the context in which they were created and extracted, and the expectations and norms of those who are affected. Particular efforts should be made to guard against any breaches, especially when such data could be used to undermine the interests of communities or community members, and when specific agreements have been made to keep such data out of the public domain.

    The following examples of research approaches involving geospatial technologies are particularly likely to raise issues of privacy and confidentiality, and therefore should be undertaken with special care: (1) automated tracking of the locations and movements of individuals or vehicles; (2) the use of images from satellites, aircraft, UAVs (drones), or ground-based sensors that are of sufficient resolution to identify individuals or vehicles; (3) the use of high resolution geographic location to link data in ways that violate personal confidentiality; and (4) any use of big data that compromises privacy, confidentiality, or violates other ethical principles in this Statement, even when such data is considered publicly available. The use of geospatial technologies and other geographical techniques within the context of warfare, or to support other acts of violence, is inconsistent with principles of doing no harm and securing free, prior, and informed consent, and is therefore outside the boundaries of ethical geographical research and practice.

  6. Disclose the Use of Artificial Intelligence (AI): AI is becoming increasingly prevalent in the geographic professions. Geographers should acknowledge and carefully document the use of AI (such as ChatGPT, Microsoft CoPilot) in their scholarship, teaching, grant applications and correspondence, and provide a careful rationale for how and why they used these technologies.

VII. Disclose Funding Sources, Affiliations, and Partnerships

  1. Maintain Ethical Integrity: Geographers should reject funding from any sponsor that compromises the principles of ethical research. The conditions under which data can be used, and restrictions on the use of data after the end of a research project, should be clarified prior to accepting funds. Ethical quandaries are particularly likely to be encountered when seeking funding from military, intelligence, security, and policing agencies as well as private corporations to support research or to undertake government- or corporate-sponsored projects. Geographers should be open and candid, avoiding undertaking any task that requires us to compromise our professional and ethical responsibilities.
  2. Disclose Funding Sources: All funding sources, affiliations, sponsorships, and partnerships should be fully disclosed in an understandable manner at the time that informed consent is requested from research participants, because prospective participants have the right to assess this information as they consider giving or withholding consent. Where relevant, geographers should undertake due diligence to trace and disclose not just intermediary but also original funding sources. Transparency and disclosure also mean reporting in a timely fashion any changes in funding sources, affiliations, or partnerships to affected individuals or communities during the course of research.
  3. Be Transparent: Disclosure and transparency must be practiced throughout the research process, from the first stages through to the dissemination of research results in journals and other publications. Such transparency in the disclosure of funding source reporting, affiliations, and partnerships also applies to presentations of geographical research at AAG and AAG-affiliated meetings as well as in other scholarly and professional forums. Disclosure of funding sources is required for publication in AAG journals and for presentations at the Annual Meeting of the AAG and at the meetings of its regional divisions. Both during the research process and in any related publications and presentations, geographers should make explicit the extent to which governments, corporations, or other funding entities have limited or restricted research efforts.
  4. Exercise Ethical Judgment: In addition to disclosure, geographers should bear in mind that there may be other ethical implications involved in accepting funding and sponsorships. Geographers should carefully consider with due diligence the ethical integrity of those sources as well as conditions or expectations implied by any particular funding, sponsorship, affiliation, or partnership, and be ready to defend our decisions on ethical grounds. Similarly, ethical judgements about funding sources may extend beyond research to teaching, such as teaching in specific programs that are externally supported. Individual geographers should encourage their departments or other units to evaluate, reflect upon, and engage in thoughtful debate regarding the ethical implications of accepting such funding support, particularly in relation to the principle of doing no harm.

VIII. Weigh Competing Ethical Obligations

Ethics are not based on absolute moral standards but are situational. This means taking into account the particular context of an act. In this spirit, geographers must weigh competing ethical obligations to research participants, students, professional colleagues, employers, and funders, among others, while recognizing that obligations to research participants are usually primary. These varying relationships may create conflicting, competing, or crosscutting ethical obligations, reflecting both the relative vulnerabilities of different individuals, communities, or populations, asymmetries of power implicit in these scholarly relationships, and the differing ethical frameworks of collaborators representing other disciplines or areas of practice. These considerations may also include geographers’ own safety, especially if they are a member of a marginalized group, or in cases where research participants, funders, or sponsors are in a position of power over the researcher.

Geographers must often make difficult decisions among competing ethical obligations while recognizing our obligation to do no harm. We remain individually responsible for making thoughtful and defensible ethical decisions. If geographers’ ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing authority, we should clarify the nature of the conflict and take reasonable steps to resolve the conflict consistent with the principles of ethics laid out in this Statement on Professional Ethics.

Links to other ethics statements

AAA Ethics Statement (2012)

AAA Ethics Forum

AGU Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy

APA Ethics Code (2017)

APSA Ethics Guide (2017)

ASA Code of Ethics

ASPRS (American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing)

ESA (Ecological Society of America) Code of Ethics (2020)

GIS Code of Ethics (URISA)

GIS Professional Ethics Project (2011)

IAPG (International Association for Promoting Geoethics) (2016)

IPSG (Indigenous People’s Specialty Group) of AAG (2009)

San Code of Research Ethics (2017)


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Dhanju, Richa and Kathleen O’Reilly. 2012. Human subjects research and the ethics of intervention: life, death and radical Geography in practice. Antipode. 45(3): 513-516.

Dowling, Robyn. 2000. Power, subjectivity and ethics in qualitative research, in Iain Hay (ed.), Qualitative Research Methods in Human Geography. Oxford University Press. pp. 23-36.

Dyer, Sarah. and David Demeritt. 2009. Un-ethical review? Why it is wrong to apply the medical model of research governance to human Geography. Progress in Human Geography, 33 (1): 46- 64.

Griffith. Daniel A. 2008. Ethical considerations in geographic research: What especially graduate students need to know. Ethics, Place, and Environment 11 : 237-253.

Hagerty, Kevin D. 2004. Ethics creep: governing social science research in the name of ethics. Qualitative Sociology, Vol. 27, No. 4, Winter.

Hay, Iain and Paul Foley. 1998. Ethics, Geography and Responsible Citizenship. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 22 (2): 169-183.

Hay, Iain and Mark Israel. 2009. Private people, secret places: Ethical research in practice. In Michael Solem, Kenneth Foote and Janice Monk, Aspiring Academics: A Resource Book for graduate students and early career faculty, pp. 167-178.

Hopkins, Peter E. 2007. Positionalities and knowledge: Negotiating ethics in practice. ACME 6 (3):386-394.

Israel, Mark. 2014. Research ethics and integrity for social scientists: Beyond regulatory compliance. Second Edition. Sage.

Joshi-McCutcheon-Sweet, Shangrila Priscilla Elizabeth. 2015. Visceral geographies of Whiteness and invisible micro-aggressions. ACME 14(1): 298-323. DOI:

Katz, Cindi. 1994. Playing the field: Questions of fieldwork in Geography, The Professional Geographer, 46:1, 67-72, DOI: 10.1111/j.0033-0124.1994.00067.x

Knott, Eleanor. 2019. Beyond the field: Ethics after fieldwork in politically dynamic contexts. Perspectives on Politics, 17(1), 140-153. doi:10.1017/S1537592718002116

Koopman, Sara. 2016. Beware: Your research may be weaponized. Annals of the American Association of Geographers 106(3): 530-535.

Lee, Roger. and David M. Smith, eds., 2011. Geographies and moralities: International perspectives on development, justice and place. John Wiley & Sons.

Liboiron, Max. 2021. Decolonizing geoscience requires more than equity and inclusion. Nature Geoscience 14: 876–877.

Louis, Renee Pualani. 2007. Can you hear us now? Voices from the margin: Using indigenous methodologies in Geographic research. Geographical Research 45(2): 130-139.

Lunn, Jenny. 2020. Fieldwork in the Global South: Ethical challenges and Dilemmas. Routledge.

Martin, Deborah and Joshua Inwood 2012. Subjectivity, power and the IRB. Professional Geographer 64(1): 7-15.

Nagar, Richa, and Frah Ali. 2003. Collaboration across borders: Moving beyond positionality. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 24(3):356-372.

Olson, Elizabeth. 2022. Crossing from knowledge to responsibility for climate change.” The Professional Geographer 74(1): 141-142.

Olson, Elizabeth. 2018. Geography and ethics III: Whither the next moral turn? Progress in Human Geography, 42(6), 937-948.

Onsrud, Harlan. J. 1995. Identifying unethical conduct in the use of GIS. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, 22(1): 90–97

Palmer, Jane, Dena Fam, Tanzi Smith, and Sarine Kilham. 2014. Ethics in fieldwork: Reflections on the unexpected. Qualitative Report. 9. 1-13.

Pickerill, Jenny 2014. The ethics of fieldwork. Blog. jenny-pickerill/

Pole, Christopher and Sam Hillyard. 2016. Fieldwork: values and ethics, in Doing fieldwork pp. 77-106 Sage Publications.

Popke, Jeff. 2007. Geography and ethics: Spaces of cosmopolitan responsibility. Progress in Human Geography 31(4): 509-518.

Popke, Jeff. 2009. The spaces of being in-common: Ethics and social Geography. In The Sage Handbook of Social Geographies, edited by Susan Smith, Rachel Pain, Sallie Marston and John Paul Jones III, pp. 435-454. London: Sage.

Price, Patricia. 2012. Geography, me and the IRB: From roadblock to resource. The Professional Geographer 64(1): 34-42.

Proctor, James. 1998. Ethics in Geography: Giving moral form to the geographical imagination. Area 30(1):8-18.

Proctor, James. 1999 Geography and ethics: journeys in a moral terrain. Psychology Press.

Raghuram, Parvati, Clare Madge, and Pat Noxolo. 2009. Rethinking responsibility and care for a postcolonial world. Geoforum 40(1):5-13.

Ritterbusch, Amy. 2012. Bridging guidelines and practice: toward a grounded care ethics in youth participatory research. Professional Geographer 64(1): 16-24.

Rose, Gillian. 1997. Situating knowledges: Positionality, reflexivities and other tactics. Progress in Human Geography 21(3):305-320.

Rose-Redwood, Reuben, Rob Kitchin, Lauren Rickards, Ugo Rossi, Ayona Datta, and Jeremy Crampton. 2018. The possibilities and limits to dialogue. Dialogues in Human Geography 8(2): 109-123.

Scheyvens, Regina and Helen Leslie. 2000. Gender, ethics, and empowerment: Dilemmas of development fieldwork. Women’s Studies International Forum, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 119–130.

Skop, Emily, Martina A. Caretta, Caroline Faria and Jessi L. Smith. 2021. An ethos of care. Inside Higher Ed,

Smith, David M. 1997. Geography and ethics: A moral turn? Progress in Human Geography 21(4): 583-590.

Smith, David M. 2001. Geography and ethics: Progress or more of the same? Progress in Human Geography 25(3): 261-268.

Steinberg, Philip, 2010. Professional ethics and the politics of geographic knowledge: The Bowman Expeditions. Political Geography 29(8): 413-413 10.1016/j.polgeo.2010.08.001

Sultana, Farhana. 2007. Reflexivity, positionality, and participatory ethics: Negotiating fieldwork dilemmas in international research. ACME 6 (3):374-385.

Sultana, Farhana. 2018. The false equivalence of academic freedom and free speech: Defending academic integrity in the age of white supremacy, colonial nostalgia, and anti-intellectualism. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies 17(2): 228-257.

Trudeau, Dan. 2012. IRBs as an asset for ethics education in Geography. The Professional Geographer 64(1): 25-33.

Valentine, Gill. 2005. Geography and ethics: Moral geographies? Ethical commitment in research and teaching. Progress in Human Geography 29(4): 483-487.

Wainwright, Joel. 2013. Geopiracy: Oaxaca, militant empiricism and geographical thought. Palgrave.

Wainwright, Joel and Bryan Weaver. 2020. A critical commentary on the AAG Geography and military study committee report. Annals of the American Association of Geographers. DOI: 10.1080/24694452.2020.1804823

Wassenaar, Douglas R., and Nicole Mamotte. 2012. Ethical issues and ethics reviews in social science research, in A. Ferrero et al., eds., The Oxford Handbook of International Psychological Ethics. Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199739165.013.0019

White, Catherine and Cathy Bailey. 2009. Feminist knowledge and ethical concerns: Towards a geography of situated ethics, Espace populations sociétés DOI :

Wilson, Helen F., and Jonathan Darling. Eds. 2021. Research ethics for human Geography: A Handbook for Students. Sage Publications.

Wilmer, Hailey, et al. 2021. Expanded ethical principles for research partnership and transdisciplinary natural resource management science. Environmental Management 68(4): 453-467.

Zook, Matthew, Solon Barocas, Danah Boyd, Kate Crawford, Emily Keller, Seeta Peña Gangadharan, Alyssa Goodman, Rachelle Hollander, Barbara A. Koenig, Jacob Metcalf, Arvind Narayanan, Alondra Nelson, and Frank Pasquale. 2017. Ten simple rules for responsible big data research. PLoS Comput Biol 13(3): e1005399.


AAG Journal Articles on Queer and Trans Geographies

Photo illustration of a rainbow colored planet

AAG has developed a list of recent articles on queer and trans geographies, last updated in June 2024. The full articles are available to AAG members. Join now if you are not already a member. Follow the links below to find out more.

To find out more about LGBT2QIA+ geographies, visit the AAG Queer and Trans Geographies Specialty Group.



AAG Journal Articles on Black Geographies and Racial Justice

Image showing signs placed on fencing outside Lafayette Park in Washington, DC, on June 7, 2020; photo by Becky Pendergast
Credit: Becky Pendergast

The following titles reflect vital scholarship on Black Geographies in AAG’s journals in recent years. Through September 30, 2024, AAG and Taylor & Francis are providing free access to these articles, available for download at the links listed below.

For additional reading recommendations, see Black Geographies Reading List, sponsored by the AAG Black Geographies Specialty Group.


Program Profile: University of Hawaiʻi, Mānoa

University of Hawai‘i Manoa GEO department students and faculty pose for a photo in the field on Kaho'olawe (Courtesy David Beilman)
University of Hawai‘i Manoa GEO department students and faculty pose for a photo in the field on Kaho'olawe. (Courtesy David Beilman)

During the 2024 Annual Meeting, AAG staff sat down for an interview with Reece Jones, professor and chair of the Department of Geography and Environment in University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa’s College of Social Sciences. The Department of Geography and Environment (GEO) is a vibrant academic community that focuses on global change and its local impacts on humans and the environment. Faculty and students pursue work that is inherently interdisciplinary, making various connections through other departments and units on campus. Many of GEO’s student and faculty research centers around Asia and the Pacific.

From political geographers to GIS specialists and environmental scientists, the breadth of faculty and course work offers undergraduates the chance to gain a holistic understanding of the discipline and do the necessary fieldwork or research to pursue career opportunities. GEO also offers world-class coursework and applied geographic research under two advanced degrees, a Master of Arts and a Doctor of Philosophy. Students of all levels engage in research on topics ranging from agriculture and food, climate change, and environmental conservation to geopolitics, geospatial sciences and data analytics, and tourism.  The department also offers a popular new certificate in GIS for undergraduate students in any program.

GEO partners with departments across the university to offer an accelerated, interdisciplinary online degree in Social Sciences of Oceans, with applications for resource management, city planning, community organizing, environmental consulting, and policy analysis. Similarly, a flexible Graduate Ocean Policy Certificate is available for students or working professionals through the department to broaden their understanding of the legal, political, economic, and social forces that affect ocean development activities.

Collaboration and Community

UH-Mānoa strives to create a community-minded environment: “We try to do our best to have kind of a collaborative relationship between graduate students and faculty so that they feel like they’re colleagues in a way [and] part of this kind of endeavor to do their research and carry out their projects.”

Jones offers the example of GEO professor Camilo Mora, whose graduate seminar is far from a typical semester seminar experience. Students collaboratively brainstorm a major question they want to answer at the beginning of the semester, then do the research and analysis together that results in a joint publication with Dr. Mora. “Major publications have come out of that class,” Jones states. “Camilo has done a really good job of bringing students into this research project and work together with them to produce very significant articles.”

University of Hawai‘i Manoa GEO department students and faculty participate in community work day in a lo'i. (Courtesy David Beilman)
University of Hawai‘i Manoa GEO department students and faculty participate in community work day in a lo’i. (Courtesy David Beilman)

Program faculty incorporate professional development skills directly into coursework. Incoming graduate students participate in a mentoring program to prepare for developing and maintaining crucial professional development skills in hopes of answering questions such as “How do you go to a conference? How do you present a paper at a conference? How do you publish a journal article? How does the academic job market work? How do you get a non-academic job?”


Care for the Land

The University of Hawai‘i has a focus on being a Native Hawaiian (Kānaka Maoli) place of learning, “bringing in Native Hawaiian thought, indigenous thought and experiences into the way that we do things,” says Jones. GEO faculty work to integrate Native Hawaiian thought and knowledge into teaching, even if that’s not central to their research focus.

In Hawai‘i, Native Hawaiian concepts are important to the way that people see the world. One often integrated into education programs is “Mālama ʻĀina,” or to care for and honor the land. “For Native Hawaiians, the land is an ancestor. That way of seeing the world is to recognize the relationship between people and the environment, and not to think of them as separate, but rather as integrated and dependent upon each other,” Jones states. “And geography as a discipline, that’s exactly what it aspires to do.”

Taken together, the educational experiences made possible by GEO at UH-Mānoa have prepared graduates for careers in academia, government service, NGOs, and the private sector in Hawaiʻi and worldwide. GEO has provided alumni with the skills to shape new (and traditional) ways of caring for the earth and human societies. For example, several graduates are now faculty in the Hawai‘inuiākea School of Hawaiian Knowledge, the only college of Indigenous knowledge in a Research I institution in the United States.

University of Hawai‘i Manoa GEO department students and faculty stop to pose for a photo at at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, near Hilo, Hawai'i. (Courtesy David Beilman)
University of Hawai‘i Manoa GEO department students and faculty stop to pose for a photo at at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, near Hilo, Hawai’i. (Courtesy David Beilman)



Council Meeting – April 2024


AAG 2024 Annual Meeting PDF Program


New Books for Geographers: Spring 2024

washington dc Take-a-stroll-along-the-Tidal-Basin-in-the-spring-to-catch-a-glimpse-of-the-Jefferson-Memorial-and-the-iconic-Cherry-Blossom-trees-courtesy-of-washington.org_

The AAG compiles a quarterly list of newly published geography books and books of interest to geographers. The list includes a diversity of books that represents the breadth of the discipline (including key sub-disciplines), but also recognizes the work which takes place at the margins of geography and overlap with other disciplines. While academic texts make up most of the books, we also include popular books, novels, books of poetry, and books published in languages other than English, for example.

Some of these books are selected for review in the AAG Review of Books. Publishers are welcome to contact the AAG Review of Books Editor-in-Chief Debbie Hopkins, as well as anyone interested in reviewing these or other titles.

A Caribbean Poetics of Spirit, by Hannah Regis (University of the West Indies Press 2024)

After Nativism: Belonging in an Age of Intolerance, by Ash Amin (Polity Books 2023)

American Indians and the American Dream: Policies, Place, and Property in Minnesota, by Kasey R. Keeler ( University of Minnesota Press 2023)

An Anthology of Blackness: The State of Black Design, by Terresa Moses and Omari Souza (MIT Press 2023)

Borders: A Very Short Introduction, by Alexander C. Diener and Joshua Hagen (Oxford University Press 2024)

Cities in Search of Freedom: European Municipalities against the Leviathan, by Elisabetta Mocca (Bristol University Press 2023)

Climate Migration: Critical Perspectives for Law, Policy, and Research, by Calum Nicholson and Benoit Mayer (Bloomsbury Publishing 2023)

Climate Travels: How Ecotourism Changes Mindsets and Motivates Action, by Michael M. Gunter Jr. (Columbia University Press 2023)

Constructing Worlds Otherwise: Societies in Movement and Anticolonial Paths in Latin America, by Raúl Zibechi and George Ygarza Quispe (Translator) (AK Press              2024)

COVID and Gender in the Middle East, by Rita Stephan (University of Texas Press 2023)

Defying Displacement: Urban Recomposition and Social War, by Andrew Lee (AK Press 2024)

Displacing Territory: Syrian and Palestinian Refugees in Jordan, by Karen Culcasi (University of Chicago Press 2023)

Encountering Palestine: Un/making Spaces of Colonial Violence, by Mark Griffiths and Mikko Joronen (University of Nebraska Press 2023)

Fatal Jump: Tracking the Origins of Pandemics, by Leslie Reperant (Johns Hopkins University Press 2023)

Fluid Geographies: Water, Science, and Settler Colonialism in New Mexico, by K. Maria D. Lane (University of Chicago Press 2024)

Food in a Just World: Compassionate Eating in a Time of Climate Change, by Tracey Harris and Terry Gibbs (Polity Books 2024)

For a Liberatory Politics of Home, by Michele Lancione (Duke University Press 2023)

Global Health: Geographical Connections, by Anthony C. Gatrell (Agenda Publishing 2023)

Hydrofeminist Thinking With Oceans: Political and Scholarly Possibilities, by Tarara Shefer, Vivienne Bozalek, and Nike Romano (Routledge 2024)

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing in Urban Environments, by Shailesh Shankar Deshpande and Arun B. Inamdar (Routledge 2024)

Katūīvei: Contemporary Pasifika poetry from Aotearoa New Zealand, by David Eggleton, Vaughan Rapatahana, and Mere Taito (Massey University Press 2024)

Making a Home: Assisted Living in the Community for Young Disabled People, by Jen Powley (Fernwood Publishing 2023)

Making Space for Indigenous Feminism, 3rd Edition, by Gina Starblanket (Fernwood Publishing 2024)

Making the Literary-Geographical World of Sherlock Holmes: The Game Is Afoot, by David McLaughlin (University of Chicago Press 2025)

Making the Unseen Visible: Science and the Contested Histories of Radiation Exposure, by Jacob Darwin Hamblin and Linda Marie Richards (Oregon State Press 2023)

Mapmatics: A Mathematician’s Guide to Navigating the World, by Paulina Rowińska (Harvard University Press 2024)

Mapping Middle-earth: Environmental and Political Narratives in J. R. R. Tolkien’s Cartographies, by Anahit Behrooz (Bloomsbury Publishing 2024)

Master Plans and Minor Acts: Repairing the City in Post-Genocide Rwanda, by Shakirah E. Hudani (University of Chicago Press 2024)

Memory in Place: Locating colonial histories and commemoration, by Cameo Dalley and Ashley Barnwell (ANU Press 2023)

Midlife Geographies: Changing Lifecourses across Generations, Spaces and Time, by Aija Lulle (Bristol University Press 2024)

Migration as Economic Imperialism: How International Labour Mobility Undermines Economic Development in Poor Countries, by Immanuel Ness (Polity Books 2023)

Near and Far Waters: The Geopolitics of Seapower, by Colin Flint (Standford University Press 2024)

Patchwork Apartheid: Private Restriction, Racial Segregation, and Urban Inequality, by Colin Gordon (Russel Sage Foundation 2023)

Pessimism, Quietism and Nature as Refuge, by David E. Cooper (Agenda Publishing 2024)

Prepare, Respond, Renew: GIS for Wildland Fires, by Anthony Schultz, Matt Ball, and Matt Artz (Esri Press 2024)

Pyromania: Fire and Geopolitics in a Climate-Disrupted World, by Simon Dalby (Agenda Publishing 2023)

Reclaiming the Americas: Latinx Art and the Politics of Territory, by Tatiana Reinoza (University of Texas Press 2023)

Red Leviathan: The Secret History of Soviet Whaling, by Ryan Tucker Jones (University of Chicago Press 2023)

Remapping the World in East Asia: Toward A Global History of the “Ricci Maps” by Mario Cams and Elke Papelitzky (University of Hawaii Press 2024)

Resisting Eviction: Domicide and the Financialization of Rental Housing, by Andrew Crosby (Fernwood Publishing 2023)

Re-storying Mediterranean Worlds: New Narratives from Italian Cultures to Global Citizenship, by Angela Biancofiore and Clément Barniaudy (Bloomsbury Publishing 2023)

Seeds of Control: Japan’s Empire of Forestry in Colonial Korea, by David Fedman (University of Washington Press 2024)

Society Despite the State: Reimagining Geographies of Order, by Anthony Ince and Geronimo Barrera de la Torre (Pluto Press               2024)

Spinning Tea Cups: A Mythical American Memoir, by Alexandra Teague (Oregon State Press 2023)

Stopping Oil: Climate Justice and Hope, by Sophie Bond, Amanda Thomas, and Gradon Diprose (Pluto Press 2023)

Structured Luck: Downstream Effects of the U.S. Diversity Visa Program, by Onoso Imoagene (Russel Sage Foundation 2024)

Taking the State out of the Body: A Guide to Embodied Resistance to Zionism, by Eliana Rubin (PM Books 2024)

Tent City, Seattle: Refusing Homelessness and Making a Home, by Tony Sparks (University of Washington Press 2024)

The Best Country to Give Birth? Midwifery, Homebirth and the Politics of Maternity in Aotearoa New Zealand, by Linda Bryder (Auckland University Press 2023)

The Black Geographic: Praxis, Resistance, Futurity, by Camilla Hawthorne and Jovan Scott Lewis (Duke University Press 2023)

The Gender Order of Neoliberalism, by Smitha Radhakrishnan and Cinzia D. Solari (Polity Books 2023)

The Geography of Hope: Real Life Stories of Optimists Mapping a Better World, by David Yarnold (Esri Press 2024)

The Lost Subways of North America: A Cartographic Guide to the Past, Present, and What Might Have Been, by Jake Berman (University of Chicago Press 2023)

The Ocean on Fire: Pacific Stories from Nuclear Survivors and Climate Activists, by Anaïs Maurer (Duke University Press 2024)

The Rocks Will Echo Our Sorrow: The Forced Displacement of the Northern Sámi, by Eliin Anna Labba (University of Minnesota Press 2023)

The Sentinel State: Surveillance and the Survival of Dictatorship in China, by Minxin Pei (Harvard University Press 2024)

The Struggle for Taiwan: A History of America, China, and the Island Caught Between, by Sulmaan Wasif Khan (Basic Books 2024)

The Unsettled: Small stories of colonization, by Richard Shaw (Massey University Press 2024)

The Youth Climate Uprising: Greta Thunberg’s School Strike, Fridays For Future, and the Democratic Challenges of Our Time, by David Fopp, Isabelle Axelsson, and Loukina Tille (Columbia University Press 2024)

Transport Truths: Planning Methods and Ethics for Global Futures, by Greg Griffin (Bristol University Press 2024)

Urban Biodiversity: The Natural History of the New Jersey Meadowlands, by Erik Kiviat and Kristi MacDonald (Rowman and Littlefield 2024)

Urgent Moments: Art and social change: The Letting Space projects 2010-2020, by Mark Amery, Amber Clausner, and Sophie Jarram (Massey University Press 2023)


Targeted Mentoring Networks